July 2021

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Installation Instructions for Boots

The Concept and Importance of Universal Joint Phasing and Drive Shaft Alignment

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The Concept and Importance of Universal Joint Phasing and Drive Shaft Alignment

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Installation Instructions for Drive Shafts

The Concept and Importance of Universal Joint Phasing and Drive Shaft Alignment

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus finibus nisi ac consectetur commodo. Nullam enim turpis, scelerisque eget egestas a, semper in erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. 

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus finibus nisi ac consectetur commodo. Nullam enim turpis, scelerisque eget egestas a, semper in erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Ut tincidunt tincidunt tincidunt. Duis porttitor ullamcorper eleifend.Aliquam dignissim diam sit amet urna fringilla, a fringilla ipsum condimentum. Quisque condimentum, ante in dignissim tempus, ligula nulla mollis nunc

 

The Concept and Importance of Universal Joint Phasing and Drive Shaft Alignment

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus finibus nisi ac consectetur commodo. Nullam enim turpis, scelerisque eget egestas a, semper in erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. 

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus finibus nisi ac consectetur commodo. Nullam enim turpis, scelerisque eget egestas a, semper in erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Ut tincidunt tincidunt tincidunt. Duis porttitor ullamcorper eleifend.Aliquam dignissim diam sit amet urna fringilla, a fringilla ipsum condimentum. Quisque condimentum, ante in dignissim tempus, ligula nulla mollis nunc

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus finibus nisi ac consectetur commodo. Nullam enim turpis, scelerisque eget egestas a, semper in erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. 

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus finibus nisi ac consectetur commodo. Nullam enim turpis, scelerisque eget egestas a, semper in erat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Ut tincidunt tincidunt tincidunt. Duis porttitor ullamcorper eleifend.Aliquam dignissim diam sit amet urna fringilla, a fringilla ipsum condimentum. Quisque condimentum, ante in dignissim tempus, ligula nulla mollis nunc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Belden uses a wide selection of materials for cusom solutions - delivering increased strength, improved wear, corrosion resistance and other qualities:

 

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Click to read more on specialty stainless steel for universal joints

 

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Belden uses a wide selection of materials for cusom solutions - delivering increased strength, improved wear, corrosion resistance and other qualities:

 

 Vestibulum tempus odio felis. Vivamus ultrices urna

 Vestibulum tempus odio felis. Vivamus ultrices urna

 Vestibulum tempus odio felis. Vivamus ultrices urna

 Vestibulum tempus odio felis. Vivamus ultrices urna

 Vestibulum tempus odio felis. Vivamus ultrices urna

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Click to read more on specialty stainless steel for universal joints

 

Instructions for Assembling a Belden Pin and Block Universal Joint

Tip: To ease assembly, use a v-block with a hole drilled into the bottom to enable the assembly tool to pass through it.

Step 1. Thoroughly clean all components.Assemble Pin and Block Universal Joint

Step 2. Pre-assemble the universal joint without a snap ring or grease, to verify correct movement of the joint (i.e.  the motion should be smooth.

Step 3. Disassemble the universal joint.

Step 4. Lightly grease all bearing and/or contact surfaces.

Step 5. Install the large-diameter pin through one hole in the large-hole yoke. With the large cross-hole of the block in line, push the large pin through the block and into the other hole of the large-hole yoke.

Step 6. Place the snap ring into the counter bore of the block and position the small-hole yoke on center of counterbored cross-hole.

Step 7. Insert assembly tool into small hole yoke and use the small pin to lightly drive the assembly tool through the universal joint. Note, be certain to correctly orient the groove in the small pin to coincide with the location of the snap ring in the block.

Step 8. Check for proper engagement of the snap-ring groove of the small pin by tapping on the small pin with a drive-pin punch and hammer.

 

Instructions for Assembling Belden Universal Joints that Require Peening of the Small-Diameter Pin

Step 1. Thoroughly clean all components.

Step 2. Pre-assemble the universal joint without grease to verify correct movement of the universal joint (i.e. the motion should be smooth.)

Assemble Peened Universal Joint

Step 3. Disassemble the universal joint.

Step 4. Lightly grease all bearing and/or contact surfaces.

Step 5. Install  the large-diameter pin through one hole in the large-hole yoke. Then with the large cross-hole of the block in line, push the large pin through the block and into the opposite hole of the large-hole yoke.

Step 6. Install the small diameter pin through the small-hole yoke, block, and large pin.

Step 7. Place the assembled universal joint on a flat, hard surface and peen the end of the small pin over equally from both sides with a ball peen-hammer. Use care so as not to crush the yoke or over-peen the pin.

Step 8. Check the assembly for correct movement.

Note: The small-diameter pin should not have any side-to-side movement.

 

 

 

 
 
 

U-Joint Phasing

The Concept and Importance of Universal Joint Phasing and Drive Shaft Alignment

Phasing is the process of aligning the universal joint yokes on both ends of the drive shaft (or double u-joint)in a parallel fashion. If the joints are not properly phased, they will operate at varying speeds throughout each revolution which can cause second-order vibrations. The vibration can lead to increased wear and potential damage to the assembly and failure of the application.

Belden’s trained technicians properly phase the universal joints onto the shaft during assembly, ensuring that the inbound vs outbound shaft of the universal joint assembly operate at near-constant velocity, minimizing vibration, noise and premature wear of the joints.

 

To further support near-constant velocity, driving and driven shafts are required to be aligned in either the “W” formation (equal true angles) or “Z” formation (parallel). It is important that the drive shaft is not angled further in a '3rd dimension'. ” In addition to diminished velocity and reduced efficiency, improper shaft alignment contributes to failure of the shaft components and even the application itself.

A word of caution: even though driving and driven shafts are now at constant velocity, this is not true for the center section – that still fluctuates which can cause problems at elevated speeds of @ 4000 RPM.

Please reach out to our technical sales and engineers to answer any questions and assist you with the alignment and phasing of your universal joints. 

 

 

Connecting Multiple U-Joints

The major advantage of selecting universal joints instead of other types of couplings is their ability to compensate for greater angular misalignments while transmitting relatively high torques.

Single U-Joints can compensate for an angular misalignment of up to 45 degrees between the input and output shaft. In some very specific cases, this angle can be increased even further, but this is not recommended for use with any significant rotational speed.

The angle can also be increased by attaching multiple universal joints in line. However, each additional joint requires a support to limit the degrees of freedom and ensure the proper transmission of torque and motion. Additional U Joints and supports add friction and thus reduce the efficiency of the power transmission chain.

Typically, the connection of 2 single Joints is the most common variant of sequenced joints.  A user can either connect two single joints by pinning or welding the hubs together or use a single center component, also called a ‘double yoke’, eliminating the need for additional machining, welding, and assembling.

Depending on size and type of Joint, these center components are available as part of the standard product range or are made to order. For some less popular sizes, manufacturers revert to the connection of 2 single U Joints with the aforementioned methods.

Double universal joints cannot only increase the operating angle going around a corner (sometimes referred to as "W configuration"), they also allow for the compensation of parallel misalignment between driving and driven shaft (a “Z configuration”).

 

U-Joint in correct w configurationU-Joints in correct z configuration

U-Joints in correct W and Z configuration on a virtual plane

U-Joints in incorrect w configurationU-Joint in incorrect z configuration

U-Joints in incorrect W and Z configuration on a virtual plane

Both configurations offer nearly constant velocity between the ingoing and outgoing end of the joint.

However, a few conditions must be met. The double joint must be located on a virtual plane and the operating angles of the two joints must be the same. If one or both joint ends are placed at an angle that takes the assembly from the virtual plane into a free 3D configuration, the constant velocity relation is lost. Also, the two joints need to be phased at 180° against each other, aligning the inwards pointing yokes.

 

U-Joints not on virtual plane

U-Joints not on a virtual plane

 

U-Joints with correct phasingU-Joints with incorrect phasing

U-Joints with correct and incorrect phasing 

 
Constant velocity refers to both joint ends rotating at the same speed and remaining at the same point of revolution at all times. This is not the case for a single universal joint. At a constant input speed, the output side of the joint rotates at a fluctuating speed wave with speeds different at various points of the revolution.  The amount of the fluctuation is related to the operating angle. The higher the angle, the more the speed / position of the output shaft differs from the input shaft. Depending on the application and operation conditions, this can lead to positioning errors or vibrations.
 
 
U-Joint Rotation Angle Difference
 
U-Joint Rotation Angle Difference 
 
Due to the increased friction from the double joints and the sequential setup of the joint centers, it is recommended that the torque ratings for a double joints are reduced by 10% compared to a single joint of the same design and size. However, in many cases the use of a double joint can increase the lifetime of the configuration. Especially for friction bearing joints, the transmittable torque decreases swiftly with increasing angle. A reduction in operating angle per joint by using a double universal joint in w configuration can reduce bearing stress and provide constant velocity operation of input and output shaft.
 
 

Custom Drive Shafts Compensate for Distance and Misalignment

Belden Universal offers telescopic drive shafts (also called cardan shafts) in a variety of design types, such as Heavy Duty, Stainless Steel and Leveler Strength.

Drive shafts, also called articulated shafts, are shafts that include two universal joints. The simplest type of drive shaft contains a joint at each end. The configuration is essentially an extended double joint for overcoming distances and offsets between the drive and the driven load. Drive shafts also provide a solution for bridging angular misalignment.
 

Telescopic Drive Shafts

Drive shafts can contain a telescopic middle element that enables quicker and simpler repositioning than possible with a rigid two-joint shaft. They allow for easy length adjustment in axial misalignments.
 

Spring-Loaded, Quick-Change Shafts for Reducing Downtime

Spring-loaded drive shafts consist of two back-to-back single universal joints connected with a spring-loaded intermediate shaft. It allows the drive shaft to be quickly removed and replaced without tools. Pinning of outer yokes is not required because the spring tension on the intermediate shafts holds the quick-change universal joint secure at each end.
 

Fail-Safe Stop Solution

Spring-loaded drive shafts can be customized to include a fail-safe solution. If the application seriously exceeds the joint's rated torque capacity, the drive shaft can be designed to fail and stop in a safe fashion, without damaging the motor.

 

A Variety of Connection Methods, Configurations and Materials

 
 

Single Universal Joints

Belden offers a broad selection of single universal joints. Standard components are manufactured from high-grade alloy or stainless steel for increased durability and better performance than standard industrial-grade models.

All components are selectively heat-treated, precision machined and ground to close tolerances. Belden's single universal joints provide exceptional service life for demanding and precision applications alike.

All joints are available with or without lubricant-retaining boot covers.

Available single universal joint options are: Heavy Duty, High Strength, Leveler Strength, Stainless Steel, Needle-Bearing and Military Standard.

Pin & Block Universal Joint

Needle-Bearing Universal Joint

Our universal joints can be customized by bores, keyways, special hub configurations. They can be manufactured from a wide variety of materials and finished with specialty coatings and platings. Components can be outfitted with lubricant retaining boots, containing specialty lubricants for a variety of industries and applications.

Available customization options for universal joints:

When a single universal joint is insufficient to compensate for all misalignment, a combination of joints can offer a suitable solution.

The Belden double universal joint provides the same reliability and service life as the single universal joint with a maximum combined working angle of 90°. Double universal joints provide accurate positioning and flexibility under higher operating angles.

Double Joints take lower loads than single joints; this is a recommendation by the joint standard due to the additional bending moments and forces that are applied to the center section and which are transferred to the joints as additional loads.

Belden's double universal joints are available in a wide variety of materials and finishes. Lubricant retaining boots are recommended for operation in corrosive environments.

Double Universal Joint

Double Universal Joint Exploded View

Our universal joints can be customized by bores, keyways, special hub configurations. They can be manufactured from a wide variety of materials and finished with specialty coatings and platings. Components can be outfitted with lubricant retaining boots, containing specialty lubricants for a variety of industries and applications.

Available customization options for universal joints:

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Contact

 

info@beldenuniversal.com
(708) 344-4600
4100 Madison Street
Hillside, IL 60162

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